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What Do Groundhogs Eat?

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Groundhogs, also known as woodchucks or whistle pigs, are large ground squirrels native to North America. They belong to the marmot family and are widely distributed in the eastern and central United States and Canada.

Groundhogs are herbivores and feed on a variety of plants, including grasses, clovers, and alfalfa. In this blog post, we will discuss what do groundhogs eat and some interesting facts about them. So, read on to know more information about them.

Groundhogs are known for hibernating during the winter months and for their use in predicting the weather on Groundhog Day (February 2nd), as it is said that if a groundhog sees its shadow, there will be six more weeks of winter.

Groundhogs are also known for their burrowing behavior, creating extensive underground burrow systems for shelter and protection from predators.

The History of Groundhogs

Groundhogs have a long history of association with human culture, particularly in North America. The most famous celebration of groundhogs is Groundhog Day, a holiday celebrated in the United States and Canada on February 2nd.

On this day, it is believed that if the groundhog emerges from its burrow and sees its shadow, there will be six more weeks of winter. If the groundhog does not see its shadow, then it is believed that spring will arrive early.

Groundhogs have also played a role in Native American folklore and have been hunted for their meat and fur.

In recent times, groundhogs have been viewed as pests because of the damage they can cause to gardens and crops. However, groundhogs also play an important role in the ecosystem as they help to aerate the soil and provide habitats for other animals.

Overall, the history of groundhogs is a mixture of cultural significance and ecological importance, and they continue to be an interesting and important part of the natural world.

groundhog in garden
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What do Groundhogs Eat: Types of Food

Groundhogs, also known as woodchucks, are herbivores and primarily eat vegetation such as grass, leaves, stems, and bark from trees and shrubs.

During the spring and summer months, they mostly feed on leaves and shoots of various plants, including clover, alfalfa, and dandelions. In the fall, groundhogs turn to bark, nuts, and fruits as their main source of food.

They also feed on agricultural crops like corn and beans, making them a nuisance to farmers. Groundhogs also occasionally eat insects, snails, and other small animals. To maintain their health, they require a variety of different food sources to meet their nutritional needs.

The Seasonal Food Habits of Groundhogs

Groundhogs, also known as woodchucks, are herbivores and primarily feed on plants. Their diet changes seasonally, as different plants are available at different times of the year.

In the spring and summer, groundhogs consume fresh green vegetation including grasses, clover, dandelions, and other herbaceous plants. During these seasons, they also eat the leaves and stems of shrubs, bushes, and trees such as dogwood, cherry, and maple.

In the fall, groundhogs begin to stock up on food to prepare for winter hibernation. They consume large amounts of food to build up their fat stores and will eat a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, and grains. Some of the commonly consumed foods include apples, blackberries, corn, and soybeans.

During winter, groundhogs hibernate, which means they sleep for several months and do not eat or drink anything. Once spring arrives, they emerge from hibernation and once again start eating fresh vegetation.

It is important to note that groundhogs are not picky eaters and will consume a wide variety of plants, making them omnivorous in nature. However, their diet primarily consists of vegetation, as it provides them with the necessary energy and nutrients for their daily activities.

What do Baby Groundhogs Eat?

Baby groundhogs, also known as cubs or kits, primarily feed on their mother’s milk until they are ready to start eating solid foods at around 4-5 weeks of age. Once they start consuming solid foods, their diet consists of vegetation such as clovers, grasses, alfalfa, and other green plants.

As they mature, their diet becomes more diverse and includes fruits, insects, and other small invertebrates.

It is important to note that groundhogs are herbivores and do not consume meat. Their dietary needs change throughout their lives as they grow from cubs to adults and they adapt their eating habits to the changing seasons.

Know Interesting Facts About Groundhogs

Here are some interesting facts about groundhogs:

  1. Habitat: Groundhogs burrow in open meadows, fields, and pastures. They prefer areas with abundant vegetation and loose soil.
  2. Physical Characteristics: Groundhogs are large, stocky rodents that can weigh up to 14 pounds. They have thick fur that is brown to gray in color and sharp claws that are adapted for digging.
  3. Hibernation: Groundhogs are true hibernators and spend most of the winter in a state of deep sleep. During hibernation, their heart rate and body temperature drop, and they do not eat, drink, or go to the bathroom.
  4. Garden Pests: Groundhogs can cause damage to gardens and crops because they eat a large amount of vegetation. They are especially fond of eating the roots of young plants, which can cause the plants to die.
  5. Predation: Groundhogs are preyed upon by a variety of predators, including foxes, coyotes, and birds of prey. They are also hunted by humans for their meat and fur.
  6. Lifespan: Groundhogs have a lifespan of 4 to 6 years in the wild and up to 10 years in captivity. They typically live alone and are most active during the spring and summer months.

Things You Can Do to Control Groundhogs in Your Garden

To control groundhogs, you can follow these steps:

  1. Fencing: Install a strong fence (at least 2-3 feet high) around gardens, yards, or other areas you want to protect from groundhogs. The fence should be buried at least 6 inches into the ground and extended outwards another 6 inches to prevent digging.
  2. Repellents: Use natural or commercial repellents such as chili powder, hot sauce, or ammonia-soaked rags to deter groundhogs from entering an area.
  3. Traps: Set live traps to capture groundhogs and release them in a remote location far from your property.
  4. Exclusion: Seal holes, cracks, and other entry point to prevent groundhogs from entering your home or other structures.
  5. Planting: Plant flowers and vegetables that groundhogs don’t like, such as alliums, daffodils, and marigolds.
  6. Habitat modification: Reduce groundhog habitat by removing brush piles, tall grass, and other areas where they can hide or burrow.
  7. Hunting: Hunting groundhogs may be an option for those living in rural areas where it is legal.
  8. Repellent plants: Planting certain plants around the perimeter of your garden or yard, such as lavender, mint, and eucalyptus, can help deter groundhogs from entering the area.

Note: Before attempting to control groundhogs, it is important to check local regulations and laws to ensure that your control methods are legal.

Additionally, it is important to always use humane methods to control groundhogs and never harm or kill them.


In conclusion, groundhogs are omnivores that feed on a variety of plants, vegetables, and insects. Their feeding patterns are seasonal, with spring and summer is the time when they are most active in their search for food.

Understanding what groundhogs eat is important in managing their population and avoiding conflicts with human activities.

By taking appropriate measures, such as planting groundhog-resistant crops, controlling insect populations, and creating barriers, gardeners, farmers, and homeowners can minimize damage from groundhogs and coexist peacefully with these fascinating creatures.

I trust that this article has shed light on some new and interesting information about groundhogs. Thank you for taking the time to read.

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